Two degrees is a common goal

1Russia has stated that the goal oRepresentatives of Russia, in their vision of a future climate agreement (proposals for the working group of the Durban platform), indicate: "The overall goal for all countries - keeping global warming within 2 degrees Celsius - shall not be used as a starting point for calculating the linear equity obligations within the "top-down" principle. The only viable approach is determination of commitments by countries themselves, with account for their level of social and economic development, natural and geographical specificity and available financial and technological possibilities."

Western observers believe that this and some other provisions of the document are Russia's refusal of specific commitments to reduce emissions. The Bloomberg agency has published an article on the position of Russia under the headline "Russia Says 2C Climate Goal Shouldn’t Dictate Carbon Pledges." According to most participants in the process, climate negotiations have long been stalled because of a dispute between developed and developing countries about who should make more efforts to reduce emissions. Experts are concerned that the lack of ambition in the agreement does not allow states to proceed to appropriate actions. One of the main objectives of the new agreement is to limit the rise in temperature since the beginning of the industrial revolution by 2 degrees Celsius.

"The new international legal instrument shall contain only a minimum set of elements that determine the configuration and the "philosophy" of the regime and shall be supported by detailed thematic implementation rules in the format of official decisions of the Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC ... Adequate involvement in the solution to the climate problem of all countries of the world primarily among the major emitters of greenhouse gases, taking into account the realities of the XXI century shall be considered as the strategic guideline." ... Representatives of Russia believe that the 10-year period is an adequate duration commitment period of the new international legal instrument.

The Russian document reports: "In determining the commitments, the factor of land use and forests shall be properly taken into account. It is advisable not to start "from scratch," but to use to the maximum - with necessary modifications - all the elements of the current regime, which proved to be effective."

Russian officials at the talks have repeatedly stated that, in the issue of commitments to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 2020, Russia will not proceed from "conversations" about potentially conservative development scenarios, but from already taken decisions. In addition, Russia has refused to mandatory reporting of emissions of the second period of the Kyoto Protocol.

Earlier, according to presidential advisor on climate Alexander Bedritsky, the country may submit draft versions of targets to reduce greenhouse gas emissions for the period after 2020 by the next UN climate conference in Lima in December 2014. However, in his opinion, one has to know the necessary initial conditions of the new agreement to determine this figure, in particular, its period of validity and the basket of regulated greenhouse gases: "The process of development of commitments for each side of the negotiations is individual, but "all must march in step."

Representatives of Russia believe that efforts to reduce emissions "are closely linked both with development and competitiveness of goods; therefore it is very important that all have equal conditions," and Russia as a country in transition has the right, as rapidly developing countries, for economic development and welfare of its citizens.

It is worth to note recent "climate" indicators in Russia: anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O, and a number of fluorine-containing compounds) in the energy, transport, industry and other sectors of the economy as a whole grew in 2012 by 0.5 % only (from 2284 to 2.295 billion tons of CO2 equivalent). Meanwhile, deep model calculations of various Russian institutions show that, without taking special measures, emissions will exceed 75 %. The report of the Analytical Center of the Russian Government and the Institute of Energy Research predicts 78-79 % by 2020.

Representatives of environmental organizations believe that the new climate agreement shall include large-scale and ambitious economic regulation mechanisms for greenhouse gas emissions and the commitments of countries. Environmentalists believe that "Russia needs much tougher and more active approach to implementing energy efficiency measures, introducing reporting of emissions and payments, to developing bio-energy, reducing methane leakage."f keeping global warming within 2 degrees in the new climate agreement shall not be a limiting factor. Representatives of environmental organizations believe that the agreement, which must be adopted in 2015, shall fix considerable and ambitious economic mechanisms to regulate greenhouse gas emissions.

Representatives of Russia, in their vision of a future climate agreement (proposals for the working group of the Durban platform), indicate: "The overall goal for all countries - keeping global warming within 2 degrees Celsius - shall not be used as a starting point for calculating the linear equity obligations within the "top-down" principle. The only viable approach is determination of commitments by countries themselves, with account for their level of social and economic development, natural and geographical specificity and available financial and technological possibilities."

Western observers believe that this and some other provisions of the document are Russia's refusal of specific commitments to reduce emissions. The Bloomberg agency has published an article on the position of Russia under the headline "Russia Says 2C Climate Goal Shouldn’t Dictate Carbon Pledges." According to most participants in the process, climate negotiations have long been stalled because of a dispute between developed and developing countries about who should make more efforts to reduce emissions. Experts are concerned that the lack of ambition in the agreement does not allow states to proceed to appropriate actions. One of the main objectives of the new agreement is to limit the rise in temperature since the beginning of the industrial revolution by 2 degrees Celsius.

"The new international legal instrument shall contain only a minimum set of elements that determine the configuration and the "philosophy" of the regime and shall be supported by detailed thematic implementation rules in the format of official decisions of the Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC ... Adequate involvement in the solution to the climate problem of all countries of the world primarily among the major emitters of greenhouse gases, taking into account the realities of the XXI century shall be considered as the strategic guideline." ... Representatives of Russia believe that the 10-year period is an adequate duration commitment period of the new international legal instrument.

The Russian document reports: "In determining the commitments, the factor of land use and forests shall be properly taken into account. It is advisable not to start "from scratch," but to use to the maximum - with necessary modifications - all the elements of the current regime, which proved to be effective."

Russian officials at the talks have repeatedly stated that, in the issue of commitments to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 2020, Russia will not proceed from "conversations" about potentially conservative development scenarios, but from already taken decisions. In addition, Russia has refused to mandatory reporting of emissions of the second period of the Kyoto Protocol.

Earlier, according to presidential advisor on climate Alexander Bedritsky, the country may submit draft versions of targets to reduce greenhouse gas emissions for the period after 2020 by the next UN climate conference in Lima in December 2014. However, in his opinion, one has to know the necessary initial conditions of the new agreement to determine this figure, in particular, its period of validity and the basket of regulated greenhouse gases: "The process of development of commitments for each side of the negotiations is individual, but "all must march in step."

Representatives of Russia believe that efforts to reduce emissions "are closely linked both with development and competitiveness of goods; therefore it is very important that all have equal conditions," and Russia as a country in transition has the right, as rapidly developing countries, for economic development and welfare of its citizens.

It is worth to note recent "climate" indicators in Russia: anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O, and a number of fluorine-containing compounds) in the energy, transport, industry and other sectors of the economy as a whole grew in 2012 by 0.5 % only (from 2284 to 2.295 billion tons of CO2 equivalent). Meanwhile, deep model calculations of various Russian institutions show that, without taking special measures, emissions will exceed 75 %. The report of the Analytical Center of the Russian Government and the Institute of Energy Research predicts 78-79 % by 2020.

Representatives of environmental organizations believe that the new climate agreement shall include large-scale and ambitious economic regulation mechanisms for greenhouse gas emissions and the commitments of countries. Environmentalists believe that "Russia needs much tougher and more active approach to implementing energy efficiency measures, introducing reporting of emissions and payments, to developing bio-energy, reducing methane leakage."